Here are entered works on the role of science in the history and development of civilization. Works on the impact of science on modern society and the sociology of science are entered under Science--Social aspects.
Here are entered works on the medieval civilization of the Middle East, North Africa and Arab Spain collectively. Works on the civilization of the Arab countries for all periods, or for the pre-Islamic or modern periods only, are entered under Civilization, Arab. Works on the civilization of the Islamic countries for all periods, or for the pre-Islamic or modern periods only, as well as non-Islamic culture during the medieval period, are entered under Islamic countries--Civilization. Modern works of a predominantly religious nature discussing 20th and 21st century problems and prospects of Islam and desirable changes, including works that advocate a civilization or society based on the teachings of Islam, are entered under Islam--20th century and/or Islam--21st century.