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Title Understanding GPS/GNSS : principles and applications / Elliott D. Kaplan, Christopher J. Hegarty, editors.

Publication Info. Boston ; London : Artech House, [2017]
©2017

Item Status

Edition Third edition.
Description 1 online resource (xxi, 993 pages) : illustrations, maps.
Series GNSS Technology and Applications Series
GNSS technology and applications series.
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index.
Contents Machine generated contents note: 1.1. Introduction -- 1.2. GNSS Overview -- 1.3. Global Positioning System -- 1.4. Russian GLONASS System -- 1.5. Galileo Satellite System -- 1.6. Chinese BeiDou System -- 1.7. Regional Systems -- 1.7.1. Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) -- 1.7.2. Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC) -- 1.8. Augmentations -- 1.9. Markets and Applications -- 1.10. Organization of the Book -- References -- 2.1. Concept of Ranging Using Time-of-Arrival Measurements -- 2.1.1. Two-Dimensional Position Determination -- 2.1.2. Principle of Position Determination via Satellite-Generated Ranging Codes -- 2.2. Reference Coordinate Systems -- 2.2.1. Earth-Centered Inertial (ECI) Coordinate System -- 2.2.2. Earth-Centered Earth-Fixed (ECEF) Coordinate System -- 2.2.3. Local Tangent Plane (Local Level) Coordinate Systems -- 2.2.4. Local Body Frame Coordinate Systems -- 2.2.5. Geodetic (Ellipsoidal) Coordinates -- 2.2.6. Height Coordinates and the Geoid -- 2.2.7. International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) -- 2.3. Fundamentals of Satellite Orbits -- 2.3.1. Orbital Mechanics -- 2.3.2. Constellation Design -- 2.4. GNSS Signals -- 2.4.1. Radio Frequency Carrier -- 2.4.2. Modulation -- 2.4.3. Secondary Codes -- 2.4.4. Multiplexing Techniques -- 2.4.5. Signal Models and Characteristics -- 2.5. Positioning Determination Using Ranging Codes -- 2.5.1. Determining Satellite-to-User Range -- 2.5.2. Calculation of User Position -- 2.6. Obtaining User Velocity -- 2.7. Frequency Sources, Time, and GNSS -- 2.7.1. Frequency Sources -- 2.7.2. Time and GNSS -- References -- 3.1. Overview -- 3.1.1. Space Segment Overview -- 3.1.2. Control Segment Overview -- 3.1.3. User Segment Overview -- 3.2. Space Segment Description -- 3.2.1. GPS Satellite Constellation Description -- 3.2.2. Constellation Design Guidelines -- 3.2.3. Space Segment Phased Development -- 3.3. Control Segment Description -- 3.3.1. OCS Current Configuration -- 3.3.2. OCS Transition -- 3.3.3. OCS Planned Upgrades -- 3.4. User Segment -- 3.4.1. GNSS Receiver Characteristics -- 3.5. GPS Geodesy and Time Scale -- 3.5.1. Geodesy -- 3.5.2. Time Systems -- 3.6. Services -- 3.6.1. SPS Performance Standard -- 3.6.2. PPS Performance Standard -- 3.7. GPS Signals -- 3.7.1. Legacy Signals -- 3.7.2. Modernized Signals -- 3.7.3. Civil Navigation (CNAV) and CNAV-2 Navigation Data -- 3.8. GPS Ephemeris Parameters and Satellite Position Computation -- 3.8.1. Legacy Ephemeris Parameters -- 3.8.2. CNAV and CNAV-2 Ephemeris Parameters -- References -- 4.1. Introduction -- 4.2. Space Segment -- 4.2.1. Constellation -- 4.2.2. Spacecraft -- 4.3. Ground Segment -- 4.3.1. System Control Center (SCC) -- 4.3.2. Central Synchronizer (CS) -- 4.3.3. Telemetry, Tracking, and Command (TT & C) -- 4.3.4. Laser Ranging Stations (SLR) -- 4.4. GLONASS User Equipment -- 4.5. Geodesy and Time Systems -- 4.5.1. Geodetic Reference System -- 4.5.2. GLONASS Time -- 4.6. Navigation Services -- 4.7. Navigation Signals -- 4.7.1. FDMA Navigation Signals -- 4.7.2. Frequencies -- 4.7.3. Modulation -- 4.7.4. Code Properties -- 4.7.5. GLONASS P-Code -- 4.7.6. Navigation Message -- 4.7.7. C/A Navigation Message -- 4.7.8. P-Code Navigation Message -- 4.7.9. CDMA Navigation Signals -- Acknowledgments -- References -- 5.1. Program Overview and Objectives -- 5.2. Galileo Implementation -- 5.3. Galileo Services -- 5.3.1. Galileo Open Service -- 5.3.2. Public Regulated Service -- 5.3.3. Commercial Service -- 5.3.4. Search and Rescue Service -- 5.3.5. Safety of Life -- 5.4. System Overview -- 5.4.1. Ground Mission Segment -- 5.4.2. Ground Control Segment -- 5.4.3. Space Segment -- 5.4.4. Launchers -- 5.5. Galileo Signal Characteristics -- 5.5.1. Galileo Spreading Codes and Sequences -- 5.5.2. Navigation Message Structure -- 5.5.3. Forward Error Correction Coding and Block Interleaving -- 5.6. Interoperability -- 5.6.1. Galileo Terrestrial Reference Frame -- 5.6.2. Time Reference Frame -- 5.7. Galileo Search and Rescue Mission -- 5.7.1. SAR/Galileo Service Description -- 5.7.2. European SAR/Galileo Coverage and MEOSAR Context -- 5.7.3. Overall SAR/Galileo System Architecture -- 5.7.4. SAR Frequency Plan -- 5.8. Galileo System Performance -- 5.8.1. Timing Performance -- 5.8.2. Ranging Performance -- 5.8.3. Positioning Performance -- 5.8.4. Final Operation Capability Expected Performances -- 5.9. System Deployment Completion up to FOC -- 5.10. Galileo Evolution Beyond FOC -- References -- 6.1. Overview -- 6.1.1. Introduction to BDS -- 6.1.2. BDS Evolution -- 6.1.3. BDS Characteristics -- 6.2. BDS Space Segment -- 6.2.1. BDS Constellation -- 6.2.2. BDS Satellites -- 6.3. BDS Control Segment -- 6.3.1. Configuration of the BDS Control Segment -- 6.3.2. Operation of the BDS Control Segment -- 6.4. Geodesy and Time Systems -- 6.4.1. BDS Coordinate System -- 6.4.2. BDS Time System -- 6.5. The BDS Services -- 6.5.1. BDS Service Types -- 6.5.2. BDS RDSS Service -- 6.5.3. BDS RNSS Service -- 6.5.4. BDS SBAS Service -- 6.6. BDS Signals -- 6.6.1. RDSS Signals -- 6.6.2. RNSS Signals of the BDS Regional System -- 6.6.3. RNSS Signals of the BDS Global System -- References -- 7.1. Quasi-Zenith Satellite System -- 7.1.1. Overview -- 7.1.2. Space Segment -- 7.1.3. Control Segment -- 7.1.4. Geodesy and Time Systems -- 7.1.5. Services -- 7.1.6. Signals -- 7.2. Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC) -- 7.2.1. Overview -- 7.2.2. Space Segment -- 7.2.3. NavIC Control Segment -- 7.2.4. Geodesy and Time Systems -- 7.2.5. Navigation Services -- 7.2.6. Signals -- 7.2.7. Applications and NavIC User Equipment -- References -- 8.1. Overview -- 8.1.1. Antenna Elements and Electronics -- 8.1.2. Front End -- 8.1.3. Digital Memory (Buffer and Multiplexer) and Digital Receiver Channels -- 8.1.4. Receiver Control and Processing and Navigation Control and Processing -- 8.1.5. Reference Oscillator and Frequency Synthesizer -- 8.1.6. User and/or External Interfaces -- 8.1.7. Alternate Receiver Control Interface -- 8.1.8. Power Supply -- 8.1.9. Summary -- 8.2. Antennas -- 8.2.1. Desired Attributes -- 8.2.2. Antenna Designs -- 8.2.3. Axial Ratio -- 8.2.4. VSWR -- 8.2.5. Antenna Noise -- 8.2.6. Passive Antenna -- 8.2.7. Active Antenna -- 8.2.8. Smart Antenna -- 8.2.9. Military Antennas -- 8.3. Front End -- 8.3.1. Functional Description -- 8.3.2. Gain -- 8.3.3. Downconversion Scheme -- 8.3.4. Output to ADC -- 8.3.5. ADC, Digital Gain Control, and Analog Frequency Synthesizer Functions -- 8.3.6. ADC Implementation Loss and a Design Example -- 8.3.7. ADC Sampling Rate and Antialiasing -- 8.3.8. ADC Undersampling -- 8.3.9. Noise Figure -- 8.3.10. Dynamic Range, Situational Awareness, and Effects on Noise Figure -- 8.3.11. Compatibility with GLONASS FDMA Signals -- 8.4. Digital Channels -- 8.4.1. Fast Functions -- 8.4.2. Slow Functions -- 8.4.3. Search Functions -- 8.5. Acquisition -- 8.5.1. Single Trial Detector -- 8.5.2. Tong Search Detector -- 8.5.3. M of N Search Detector -- 8.5.4. Combined Tong and M of N Search Detectors -- 8.5.5. FFT-Based Techniques -- 8.5.6. Direct Acquisition of GPS Military Signals -- 8.5.7. Vernier Doppler and Peak Code Search -- 8.6. Carrier Tracking -- 8.6.1. Carrier Loop Discriminator -- 8.7. Code Tracking -- 8.7.1. Code Loop Discriminators -- 8.7.2. BPSK-R Signals -- 8.7.3. BOC Signals -- 8.7.4. GPS P(Y)-Code Codeless/Semicodeless Processing -- 8.8. Loop Filters -- 8.8.1. PLL Filter Design -- 8.8.2. FLL Filter Design -- 8.8.3. FLL-Assisted PLL Filter Design -- 8.8.4. DLL Filter Design -- 8.8.5. Stability -- 8.9. Measurement Errors and Tracking Thresholds -- 8.9.1. PLL Tracking Loop Measurement Errors -- 8.9.2. PLL Thermal Noise -- 8.9.3. Vibration-Induced Oscillator Phase Noise -- 8.9.4. Allan Deviation Oscillator Phase Noise -- 8.9.5. Dynamic Stress Error -- 8.9.6. Reference Oscillator Acceleration Stress Error -- 8.9.7. Total PLL Tracking Loop Measurement Errors and Thresholds -- 8.9.8. FLL Tracking Loop Measurement Errors -- 8.9.9. Code-Tracking Loop Measurement Errors
-- 8.9.10. BOC Code Tracking Loop Measurement Errors -- 8.10. Formation of Pseudorange, Delta Pseudorange, and Integrated Doppler -- 8.10.1. Pseudorange -- 8.10.2. Delta Pseudorange -- 8.10.3. Integrated Doppler -- 8.10.4. Carrier Smoothing of Pseudorange -- 8.11. Sequence of Initial Receiver Operations -- 8.12. Data Demodulation -- 8.12.1. Legacy GPS Signal Data Demodulation -- 8.12.2. Other GNSS Signal Data Demodulation -- 8.12.3. Data Bit Error Rate Comparison -- 8.13. Special Baseband Functions -- 8.13.1. Signal-to-Noise Power Ratio Estimation -- 8.13.2. Lock Detectors -- 8.13.3. Cycle Slip Editing -- References -- 9.1. Overview -- 9.2. Interference -- 9.2.1. Types and Sources -- 9.2.2. Effects -- 9.2.3. Interference Mitigation -- 9.3. Ionospheric Scintillation -- 9.3.1. Underlying Physics -- 9.3.2. Amplitude Fading and Phase Perturbations -- 9.3.3. Receiver Impacts -- 9.3.4. Mitigation -- 9.4. Signal Blockage -- 9.4.1. Vegetation -- 9.4.2. Terrain -- 9.4.3. Man-Made Structures -- 9.5. Multipath -- 9.5.1. Multipath Characteristics and Models -- 9.5.2. Effects of Multipath on Receiver Performance -- 9.5.3. Multipath Mitigation -- References.
Note continued: 10.1. Introduction -- 10.2. Measurement Errors -- 10.2.1. Satellite Clock Error -- 10.2.2. Ephemeris Error -- 10.2.3. Relativistic Effects -- 10.2.4. Atmospheric Effects -- 10.2.5. Receiver Noise and Resolution -- 10.2.6. Multipath and Shadowing Effects -- 10.2.7. Hardware Bias Errors -- 10.3. Pseudorange Error Budgets -- References -- 11.1. Introduction -- 11.2. Position, Velocity, and Time Estimation Concepts -- 11.2.1. Satellite Geometry and Dilution of Precision in GNSS -- 11.2.2. DOP Characteristics of GNSS Constellations -- 11.2.3. Accuracy Metrics -- 11.2.4. Weighted Least Squares -- 11.2.5. Additional State Variables -- 11.2.6. Kalman Filtering -- 11.3. GNSS Availability -- 11.3.1. Predicted GPS Availability Using the Nominal 24-Satellite GPS Constellation -- 11.3.2. Effects of Satellite Outages on GPS Availability -- 11.4. GNSS Integrity -- 11.4.1. Discussion of Criticality -- 11.4.2. Sources of Integrity Anomalies -- 11.4.3. Integrity Enhancement Techniques -- 11.5. Continuity -- 11.5.1. GPS -- 11.5.2. GLONASS -- 11.5.3. Galileo -- 11.5.4. BeiDou -- References -- 12.1. Introduction -- 12.2. Code-Based DGNSS -- 12.2.1. Local-Area DGNSS -- 12.2.2. Regional-Area DGNSS -- 12.2.3. Wide-Area DGNSS -- 12.3. Carrier-Based DGNSS -- 12.3.1. Precise Baseline Determination in Real Time -- 12.3.2. Static Application -- 12.3.3. Airborne Application -- 12.3.4. Attitude Determination -- 12.4. Precise Point Positioning -- 12.4.1. Conventional PPP -- 12.4.2. PPP with Ambiguity Resolution -- 12.5. RTCM SC-104 Message Formats -- 12.5.1. Version 2.3 -- 12.5.2. Version 3.3 -- 12.6. DGNSS and PPP Examples -- 12.6.1. Code-Based DGNSS -- 12.6.2. Carrier-Based -- 12.6.3. PPP -- References -- 13.1. Overview -- 13.2. GNSS/Inertial Integration -- 13.2.1. GNSS Receiver Performance Issues -- 13.2.2. Review of Inertial Navigation Systems -- 13.2.3. The Kalman Filter as System Integrator -- 13.2.4. GNSSI Integration Methods -- 13.2.5. Typical GPS/INS Kalman Filter Design -- 13.2.6. Kalman Filter Implementation Considerations -- 13.2.7. Integration with Controlled Reception Pattern Antenna -- 13.2.8. Inertial Aiding of the Tracking Loops -- 13.3. Sensor Integration in Land Vehicle Systems -- 13.3.1. Introduction -- 13.3.2. Land Vehicle Augmentation Sensors -- 13.3.3. Land Vehicle Sensor Integration -- 13.4. A-GNSS: Network Based Acquisition and Location Assistance -- 13.4.1. History of Assisted GNSS -- 13.4.2. Emergency Response System Requirements and Guidelines -- 13.4.3. The Impact of Assistance Data on Acquisition Time -- 13.4.4. GNSS Receiver Integration in Wireless Devices -- 13.4.5. Sources of Network Assistance -- 13.5. Hybrid Positioning in Mobile Devices -- 13.5.1. Introduction -- 13.5.2. Mobile Device Augmentation Sensors -- 13.5.3. Mobile Device Sensor Integration -- References -- 14.1. GNSS: A Complex Market Based on Enabling Technologies -- 14.1.1. Introduction -- 14.1.2. Defining the Market Challenges -- 14.1.3. Predicting the GNSS Market -- 14.1.4. Changes in the Market over Time -- 14.1.5. Market Scope and Segmentation -- 14.1.6. Dependence on Policies -- 14.1.7. Unique Aspects of GNSS Market -- 14.1.8. Sales Forecasting -- 14.1.9. Market Limitations, Competitive Systems and Policy -- 14.2. Civil Applications of GNSS -- 14.2.1. Location-Based Services -- 14.2.2. Road -- 14.2.3. GNSS in Surveying, Mapping, and Geographical Information Systems -- 14.2.4. Agriculture -- 14.2.5. Maritime -- 14.2.6. Aviation -- 14.2.7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and Drones -- 14.2.8. Rail -- 14.2.9. Timing and Synchronization -- 14.2.10. Space Applications -- 14.2.11. GNSS Indoor Challenges -- 14.3. Government and Military Applications -- 14.3.1. Military User Equipment: Aviation, Shipboard, and Land -- 14.3.2. Autonomous Receivers: Smart Weapons -- 14.4. Conclusions -- References -- Reference -- B.1. Introduction -- B.2. Frequency Standard Stability -- B.3. Measures of Stability -- B.3.1. Allan Variance -- B.3.2. Hadamard Variance -- References -- C.1. Introduction -- C.2. Free-Space Propagation Loss -- C.3. Conversion Between Power Spectral Densities and Power Flux Densities -- References.
Summary Providing a comprehensive treatment of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), this reference offers both a quick overview of GNSS essentials and an in-depth treatment of advanced topics exploring all the latest advances in technology, applications, and systems. -- Edited summary from book.
Local Note eBooks on EBSCOhost EBSCO eBook Subscription Academic Collection - North America
Subject Global Positioning System.
Genre/Form Electronic books.
Added Author Kaplan, Elliott D., editor.
Hegarty, C. (Christopher J.), editor.
Added Title Understanding GPS.
Understanding Global Positioning System/Global Navigation Satellite Systems
Other Form: Print version: Understanding GPS/GNSS. Third edition. Boston ; London : Artech House, [2017] 9781630810580 (OCoLC)992572120
ISBN 9781630814427 (electronic)
1630814423
9781630810580
1630810584